mentalpreparednesstraining  By Judith P. Andersen, Ph.D., Konstantinos Papazoglou, M.A., Harri Gustafsberg, M.Sc., Peter Collins, M.D., and Bengt Arnetz, M.D.  bill 163 supporting Ontarios first responders act posttraumatic stress disorder

thepoliceinsider  PTSD the silent killer “it doesn’t cure itself”

Emotionalsurvival – Officer survival tips

Arevolutionary Approach to Treating PTSD

PersistanceMemories and PTSD

TreatingPTSD requires more mental health professionals with combat experience

Brantfordexpositor Post-traumatic stress disorder in first responders: ‘It’s taking a toll’

OttawaSun– OPP cop says Sparta PTSD program “changed my life” – the Sparta program uses program uses many forms of therapy, including meditation, equine therapy (with horses), high-ropes courses, philosophy, ancient myth and more, to help people cope with their PTSD.

insideOttawaValley  Inaugural clinic seminar in Perth attracts PTSD-affected cops, Afghan vets PTSD during the holidays

Corrections Articles   Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review
Caitlin Finney, Erene Stergiopoulos, Jennifer Hensel, Sarah Bonato and Carolyn S DewaEmail author BMC Public HealthBMC series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201313:82
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-82©  Finney et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013 Received: 27 June 2012Accepted: 7 January 2013Published: 29 January 2013  ‘Prison guards can never be weak’: the hidden PTSD crisis in America’s jails
‘Eight and the gate’ is a corrections officer’s unofficial motto, but the hyper-vigilance of the job and the episodes of inmate violence take an extremely high toll. ‘We’re doing time too, we’re just getting paid for it’

Read 177 publications by John M. Violanti  MS, Counseling Psychology, University at Buffalo, 1988. PhD, Sociology, University at Buffalo, 1981. MS, Social Sciences, University at Buffalo, 1975. Police Suicide the Enemy Within by John M. Violanti, Ph.D. NY State Police- Retired

Research Professor Social & Preventive Medicine NY State University at Buffalo  Law Enforcement Traumatic Stress: Clinical Syndromes and Intervention Strategies – Laurence Miller, Ph.D.

Suicide ideation- effect of strain and depression on gender – police General strain theory, exposure to violence, and suicide ideation among police officers: A gendered approach. A wide body of research has demonstrated that police officers are profoundly affected by their exposure to violence and the traumatic events viewed commonly as part of their job duties. Faced with stress, officers learn to adapt by incorporating coping techniques. The present study utilizes logistic regression techniques, finding that strain has a positive and direct effect on male officers suicide ideation risk, but not for female police. Moreover, depression has a mediating effect on strain and suicide ideation for both genders. Some critical differences in suicide ideation outcomes between male and female police officers are reported. Policy implications concerning retention and recruiting are also discussed.

Chronic police stress and heart disease

Chronic stress can result in frequent or persistent challenges to many of the bodily systems that regulate cardiovascular and immune functions. Police work is an environment replete with stress. This study, recently published in Psychiatry Research, looked at the dysregulation of a hormone secreted during the stress response (cortisol) and its effect on artery health in police officers. A “healthy” artery will expand rapidly and fully after it is occluded. We tested police artery health by first blocking off the brachial artery (located in the arm) with a pressure cuff and then releasing it. By using ultrasound, we could then measure how much the artery expanded after the cuff was released. The more the artery expanded the healthier is was.  In addition we also measured cortisol secretion at awakening in the morning.  We then looked at the relationship between dysregulated cortisol patterns and artery expansion. The results suggested that dysregulation of cortisol due to the chronic stress experienced by police officers decreased the ability of the arteries to expand properly. This was especially true in women officers. Age, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not affect this result. In sum, what this study indicates is that stress can compromise the cardiovascular system in police officers, leading to an increased risk for heart disease. – John M. Violanti  Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Previously published as: Police Studies: Intnl Review of Police Development
Online from: 1997
Subject Area: Health & Social Care

workstressagingofficers  Data are sparse regarding the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, even for employees working in high-stress occupations, such as law enforcement. To improve our understanding of this issue in older workers, we assessed and characterized work stress, coping strategies, and stress-related health outcomes in a sample of police officers aged 50 years and older (n = 105).  Stress doses of hydrocortisone reduce chronic stress symptoms and improve health-related quality of life in high-risk patients after cardiac surgery: A randomized study  Experiencing acute stress is inherent in police work. The inability to cope effectively with stressful events can result in undesirable psychological and somatic outcomes, leading to chronic stress, burnout, and quitting the profession. Surprisingly, however, understanding the coping process in police stress and identifying effective coping strategies in response to stressful events has received only scant attention in the research literature. The purposes of this article are (a) to review the coping process in police stress, (b) to identify adaptive and maladaptive coping styles in police work, and (c) to suggest coping strategies that reflect the coping model to reduce both chronic and acute forms of stress and to improve job satisfaction and performance among police officers. The model consists of officers’ detection of stressful events or stimuli, their cognitive appraisal of the events or stimuli, and their application of approach- or avoidance-coping dimensions, and cognitive- and behavioral-coping subdimensions.  Abstract: Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important predictor of a range of health and illness outcomes. Research seeking to identify the extent to which this often-reported effect is due to protective benefits of higher SES or to toxic elements of lower social status has not yielded consistent or conclusive findings. A relatively novel hypothesis is that these effects are due to chronic stress that is associated with SES; lower SES is reliably associated with a number of important social and environmental conditions that contribute to chronic stress burden, including crowding, crime, noise pollution, discrimination, and other hazards or stressors. In other words, chronic stress may capture much of the variance in health and social outcomes associated with harmful aspects of lower social status. Low SES is generally associated with distress, prevalence of mental health problems, and with health-impairing behaviors that are also related to stress. Research targeting this hypothesis is needed to determine the extent to which stress is a pathway linking SES and health.  Social support is defined as information leading the subject to believe that he is cared for and loved, esteemed, and a member of a network of mutual obligations. The evidence that supportive interactions among people are protective against the health consequences of life stress is reviewed. It appears that social support can protect people in crisis from a wide variety of pathological states: from low birth weight to death, from arthritis through tuberculosis to depression, alcoholism, and the social breakdown syndrome. Furthermore, social support may reduce the amount of medication required, accelerate recovery, and facilitate compliance with prescribed medical regimens.  Much of the literature on police‐related stress has focused on its intrapersonal nature, particularly in terms of the impact of such stressors as traumatic incidents and life‐or‐death decision‐making. Traditional remedies have generally focused on one of two models: (1) clinical intervention through psychological counseling or (2) individual coping through training programs that teach stress‐reducing techniques ranging from exercise to transcendental meditation. Yet neither these causes nor their accompanying solutions address the chronic sources of organizationally induced stress that have the capacity for taking a far greater toll on the long‐term health and well‐being of police personnel. From unclear expectations to inadequate communications, insufficient rewards, and autocratic management practices, this paper explores the dynamics of organizational stress in policing, along with potential strategies for proactively combating it.  The Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study is one of the first population-based studies to integrate psychological, physiological, and subclinical measures of stress, disease, and mental dysfunction. This pilot study was undertaken to establish a methodology and descriptive results for a larger police study.  This study develops the concept of emotional exhaustion, an extremely affective and chronic type of work-related strain. Sources of emotional exhaustion were investigated in a police organization that was struggling with major changes. The findings suggest that emotional exhaustion is partially the result of personal characteristics of the employee, interpersonal milieu, and the work itself, but is profoundly affected by departmental context, administrative policy and practices, and the contradictory mandate of police in society.  This study estimates the effects of perceived work stress in police officers and determines the impact of coping on both perceived work stress and health. Officers from a large, urban police department (N = 1,072) completed detailed questionnaires. Exposure to critical incidents, workplace discrimination, lack of cooperation among coworkers, and job dissatisfaction correlated significantly with perceived work stress. Work stress was significantly associated with adverse outcomes, including depression and intimate partner abuse. Officers who relied on negative or avoidant coping mechanisms reported both higher levels of perceived work stress and adverse health outcomes. Results have implications for improving stress-reducing efforts among police officers. Interventions that address modifiable stressors and promote effective coping and resiliency will probably be most beneficial in minimizing police stress and associated outcomes.  There is evidence suggesting that male police officers are at a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease than males in the general population. Thus, 1648 men (including 220 police officers and 1428 non-police officers) were followed for 10 years to determine the incidence of coronary heart disease. Subjects were participants of the Normative Aging Study, alongitudinal study of aging initiated in 1963 at the Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic in Boston, Massachusetts. Comparison of police officers and non-police officers showed no statistically significant differences in the crude incidence rates of coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, angina pectorls, or death from coronary heart disease) and myocardial infarction alone.  Abstract
Very little is known about the long-term health risks associated with the high stress police officer occupation. We report here on a retrospective cohort of 2,376 ever-employed white male police officers employed between January 1950 and October 1979. Vital status was obtained for 96%, the officers accumulating a total of 39,462 person-years. Six-hundred sixty-one deaths were observed. Total mortality from all causes was comparable to that of the overall U.S. white male population (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 106).  Much attention has been given to the topic of occupational stress among law enforcement professionals during the last decade. Yet, while the number of papers addressing this topic appear with increasing regularity in the law enforcement literature, the basic assumptions underlying the concept of police stress appear to have been ignored or accepted as fact in the absence of sound empirical support. This article represents an attempt to (1) identify the assumptions that underly the concept of police stress, (2) review the empirical evidence related to these assumptions, and (3) offer an alternative paradigm designed to guide future research on police stress.  Although prior evidence exists concerning the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cardiovascular disease, few studies have examined associations of PTSD symptomatology and the metabolic syndrome in the high stress occupation of police work. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors that have also been independently associated with psychological conditions. The aim of this study was to examine associations between the PTSD symptoms and metabolic syndrome in police officers. A stratified sample of 115 police officers was randomly selected from the Buffalo, NY Police Department. PTSD symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event scale (IES), divided into categories of subclinical, mild, moderate and severe symptom levels.

Risk Factors for PTSD  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Law Enforcement By Paul G. Brown …” People who actually witness events such as these
may be affected for years, but what about the police officers, firefighters, and emergency
medical personnel that have to respond to these events over and over again? How are
Lori H. Colwell, Ph.D. Whiting Forensic Division, Connecticut Valley Hospital, Phillip M. Lyons, Jr., J.D., Ph.D., A. Jerry Bruce, Ph.D., Randall L. Garner, Ph.D., Rowland S. Miller, Ph.D., Sam Houston State University Exposure to Critical Incidents: What Are the Effects on Canadian Correctional Officers? Correctional officers exposed to trauma in the line of duty face potentially unpleasant and disabling after-effects. Appropriate and timely intervention lessens the impact on the officer, by reducing personal stress.  This prospective, longitudinal study investigated risk factors in the development of psychological ill health and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of 223 junior police officers. Participants were assessed using a self-report methodology during training and again 12 months later on a range of personality, trauma exposure, and symptom measures. Risk factors for general psychological ill health at phase 2 of the research were found to comprise mostly stable, preexisting characteristics such as personality style, gender, and trait dissociation. Conversely, specific traumatic stress symptoms were more heavily influenced by experiences in the intervening 12 months, such as severity of incident exposure and peritraumatic dissociation. The implications for differential intervention are discussed. DUTY-RELATED STRESSORS AND PTSD SYMPTOMS IN SUBURBAN POLICE OFFICERS  This study examines internal and external risk factors for posttraumatic stress symptoms in 262 traumatized police officers. Results show that 7% of the entire sample had PTSD, as established by means of a structured interview; 34% had posttraumatic stress symptoms or subthreshold PTSD. Trauma severity was the only predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms identified at both 3 and 12 months posttrauma. At 3 months posttrauma, symptomatology was further predicted by introversion, difficulty in expressing feelings, emotional exhaustion at time of trauma, insufficient time allowed by employer for coming to terms with the trauma, dissatisfaction with organizational support, and insecure job future. At 12 months posttrauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms were further predicted by lack of hobbies, acute hyperarousal, subsequent traumatic events, job dissatisfaction, brooding over work, and lack of social interaction support in the private sphere. Implications of the findings regarding organizational risk factors are discussed in the light of possible occupational health interventions.  Abstract

Background:  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
Purpose:  The purpose of the current review is to evaluate the evidence suggesting that PTSD increases cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and to identify possible biomarkers and psychosocial characteristics and behavioral variables that are associated with these outcomes.  The present study examined associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with subclinical cardiovascular disease in police officers. A stratified sample of 100 police officers was randomly selected from the Buffalo, New York, Police Department. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers were assessed by ultrasound of the brachial artery (flow-mediated dilation [FMD]). PTSD symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES).  This study examines the association of individual and familial risk factors with exposure to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male twins (N = 6744) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Independent reports of familial psychopathology from co-twins were used to avoid the potential biases of the family history method.